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Journal of Comparative studies

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ISSN 2255-9388 (print); ISSN 2592-8279 (online)

Focus and Scope: “Journal of Comparative Studies” / Komparatīvistikas almanahs is a double-blind peer-reviewed international, collaborative English-language scholarly journal published by Daugavpils University (Latvia) in cooperation with University of Zakho (Kurdistan-Region-Iraq). It is aimed at involving scholars from academic communities around the world and promoting a broad conception of cultural studies in the Humanities and Social Sciences. The journal publishes original multidisciplinary research articles dealing with issues of regional, national, transnational, international, and global significance applying comparative research methodology on diverse aspects of culture (cultural memory and identity, values and beliefs, customs and rituals, lifestyles and their social impact within social groups etc.) and their facets in literature, language, and society. By providing a platform for a scientific polylogue and collaboration in the framework of the research programme “Regional Studies, Literature and Arts” it is highly recognized not only regionally, but also internationally.

Publication frequency: 1 issue per year (annual), in December.

Publication charges: The journal does not charge article processing or submission charges.

Indexed in: EBSCOhost, European Reference Index for the Humanities and Social Sciences (ERIH PLUS), Index Copernicus International Journals Master List, Central and Eastern European Online Library (CEEOL), Directory of Research Journals Indexing (DRJI).

Current Issue

Journal of Comparative Studies

No 15 (44)
Published: 2022
ISSN 2255-9388 (print)
ISSN 2592-8279 (online)

Contents:

Editors of the collection: Ilze Kačāne, Aveen Mohammed Hasan | 6–7 | FOREWORD

Birgit Menzel, Anita Stašulāne, Ilze Kačāne | 8–14 | PDF
Esotericism and the East: Introduction

Christopher McIntosh | 16–31 | PDF
The Quest for Shangri-La

Birgit Menzel | 32–58 | PDF
Eurasia as a Spiritual Realm? Inquiries into an Imagined Continent

Tim Rudbøg | 60–79 | PDF
H. P. Blavatsky’s Later Reception of Hindu Philosophy

Ulrich Harlass | 80–101 | PDF
Theosophical Anthropology, or the Septenary Constitution of Man Reconsidered

Konstantin Burmistrov | 102–123 | PDF
Russian Esotericism of the Early Twentieth Century and Kabbalah

Romina Kaltenbach | 124–151 | PDF
Russia’s Mystical Anarchism: the Case of Aleksej Solonovich (1887-1937)

Jihan Zakarriya | 154–182 | PDF
Agency, Sexuality and Female Identity in “Disgrace” and “The Journal of Sarab Affan”

Pedro Albuquerque | 184–196 | PDF
The Cultural Uniqueness of Portuguese-Spanish Border Landscapes

Editorial Board

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
Ilze KAČĀNE

Daugavpils University, Latvia
ORCID iD  
Scopus Author ID
WoS Researcher ID

EDITOR
Aveen Mohammed HASAN
University of Zakho, Kurdistan-Region-Iraq
ORCID iD

MEMEBERS OF THE EDITORIAL BOARD
Elisa BIZZOTTO
Iuav University of Venice, Italy

Jian-bang DENG
Tamkang University, Taiwan

Stefano-Maria EVANGELISTA
University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Sonia F. FARID
Cairo University, Egypt

Tatiana FILOSOFOVA
University of North Texas, USA

Rolf FÜLLMANN
University of Cologne, Germany

Maria José HERNÁNDEZ-SERRANO
University of Salamanca, Spain

Benedikts KALNAČS
University of Latvia, Latvia

Ervand MARGARYAN
Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University, Armenia

Kristina MULLAMAA
University of Tartu, Estonia

James M. NYCE
Ball State University, USA

Irēna SALENIECE
Daugavpils University, Latvia

Anita STAŠULĀNE
Daugavpils University, Latvia

Geoffrey SWAIN
University of Glasgow, United Kingdom

Sylwia Janina WOJCIECHOWSKA
Jesuit University Ignatianum in Krakow, Poland

For Authors

General Standards
The authors of the “Journal of Comparative Studies” should follow the good practices of ethics and research integrity. The research must be conducted in line with the best practices and codes of conduct of relevant professional bodies and national and international regulatory bodies. The authors should present an accurate account of the work performed and an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented in the paper clearly. An article should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.  

Originality and Acknowledgement of Sources
The authors should ensure they have written entirely original works. All articles submitted to the “Journal of Comparative Studies” are automatically screened for plagiarism. If they have used other scholars’ publications, ideas and words, they should ensure that they have been appropriately cited or quoted and that permission has been obtained where necessary. Information obtained privately, as in conversation, correspondence, or discussion with third parties, must not be used or reported without explicit, written permission from the source. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical behaviour and is unacceptable.

Authorship
All those who have made substantial contributions to the research should be listed as co-authors. In addition, if others participated in certain aspects of conducting the study or shaping the paper (e.g. language editing or translation), they should be recognised in the acknowledgements section. The authors are expected to consider the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. All co-authors take collective responsibility for the work and are responsible for the accuracy and integrity of any part of the work.

Submission
The “Journal of Comparative Studies” publishes theory-driven, methodologically sophisticated and empirical research papers in English that have undergone a double-blind peer-review process. To increase the chances of publication and move through peer review, production and publication smoothly, check the following criteria:

  • Does the paper fit the stated scope of the journal?
  • Is the paper an original comparative study (not a compilation of formerly known publications)?
  • Does the paper contain sufficient new findings?
  • Does the paper’s title match its content?
  • Are the keywords and the abstract sufficiently informative?
  • Is the aim in the abstract and the introduction specified?
  • Does the content of the paper justify its length?
  • Is the research rigorous as to methodology and conceptualisation?
  • Is the paper well-organised?
  • Does the paper have conclusions that logically stem from the content?
  • Is the bibliography sufficient and up-to-date?
  • Is the paper written in good academic English?
  • Is the paper formatted according to the requirements in the template?

Two files of the manuscript should be submitted as Microsoft Word documents using a PAPER TEMPLATE and sent electronically to the editor-in-chief Ilze Kačāne (ilze.kacane@du.lv):
1) paper with author(s) details (doc. title: SURNAME_NAME_FULL), 2) anonymised file for peer review (any information leading to the author(s) must be removed) (doc. title: Short_Paper_Title_ANONYM). The manuscript should be submitted together with the signed AUTHOR(S) GUARANTEE FORM. To help convey the importance of the research, add a cover letter addressed to the editors.

Instructions for Authors
The paper not exceeding 10,000 words should be an original study in English that is “spell checked” and “grammar checked”. American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these.

Page 0 (see a formatted paper template)
1) TITLE
The title should be concise, specific and informative. Avoid abbreviations and acronyms.

2) AUTHOR’S NAME AND SURNAME

3) Author affiliation and contact information
Indicate again 1) the given name(s) and 2) the family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelt; indicate both a scientific degree (e.g. Dr. philol.) and a position (e.g. professor) immediately after the second mention of the first name and surname. Include the author’s affiliation (where the actual research work was done) following such order: Centre/Department, Institute/Faculty, University, Country. Be sure to add the e-mail address and ORCID iD. Ensure that the correct e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date.

4) Short author’s biography
Short author’s biography not exceeding 300 words must be written in the third person using Present Simple, Past Simple or Present Perfect tense accordingly. It must begin with 1) a scientific degree followed by 2) the given name(s) and the family name and present the relevant current information (e.g. Dr. philol. Jānis Ozols is a senior researcher of the Centre of Cultural Research at Daugavpils University Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences, Latvia.). Include only relevant academic information and most significant achievements, avoiding personal information (e.g. non-academic activities) or subjective evaluation.

Page 1
1) ABSTRACT
An abstract, the same as a title, plays a vital role in the communication of the research. Without proper identification, papers may not be found and cited. The abstract should not exceed 350 words in English. It should briefly summarise the content, state the purpose and significance of the research, methods, the principal results and major conclusions. The abstract is often presented separately from the article; it must be able to stand alone. In-text citations and non-standard or uncommon abbreviations, symbols, footnotes/endnotes should be avoided.

2) Keywords:
Keywords are used for indexing and searching purposes. We suggest avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts. Maximum seven (7) keywords that do not replicate the words used in the title are written immediately after the abstract following the word Keywords and separated by commas.

Page 2 onwards
From the template Page 2 onwards, the paper must be organised into unnumbered sections – INTRODUCTION and other TITLED SECTIONS AND SUBSECTIONS within the body of the text, followed by CONCLUSION, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS and REFERENCES.

In the INTRODUCTION, state the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. This section should describe the aim and objectives of the research so that it may be understood and appreciated by experts from other research disciplines. A section on relevant theory should extend, not repeat, the background to the research already dealt with in the introduction; it should lay the foundation for further work. In the discussion and result sections, avoid extensive citations and provide a comparative analysis of the phenomena. The conclusions of the study should be presented in a CONCLUSION section. To facilitate compliance to funder’s requirements, state the funding source before References, e.g.:

This article is based on research that has been conducted within a framework of the international project “Cultural Heritage and Identities of Europe’s Future” (CHIEF), funded from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme under Grant Agreement No 770464.

All works cited and quoted in the text must be present in REFERENCES. References must be listed alphabetically and numbered. Titles of papers, books and journals in the list of references should be given in full. The use of the DOI is encouraged.

Formatting guidelines are provided in the PAPER TEMPLATE.

The references must be written only in Latin script (use the converter service <translit.cc> to convert vocabulary from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script):
Shahov, M. O. (2001). Staroobrjadcheskoe mirovozzrenie. Religiozno-filosofskie osnovy i social’naja pozicija. Moskva: RAGS.

For bibliographic references, generally, follow the format:
Last name, First Initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher.

e.g. Khrushchev, S., Benson, T. S., Jones, P. and Smirnov, I. (2012). Drawing the Curtain: The Cold War in Cartoons. London: Fontanka.

One author and first edition
Patterson, J. (2005). Maximum Ride. New York: Little, Brown.

One author and not the first edition
Dahl, R. (2004). Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. 6th ed. New York: Knopf.

Books with two or more authors
Vermaat, M., Sebok, S., Freund, S., Campbell, J. and Frydenberg, M. (2014). Discovering Computers. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Book chapters
Cars, M. B. and Österman C. (2014). “Mind the Gap! Maritime Education for Gender-Equal Career Advancement.” In: Kitada, M., Williams, E. and Froholt, L. (eds.) Maritime Women: Global Leadership. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 143–153.

With original date
Beauvoir, S. de. (1949) 1993. The Second Sex. Trans. H. M. Parshley. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Journal articles
Church, T. A. and Katigbak, M. S. (2000). “Trait Psychology in the Philippines.” American Behavioral Scientist 44 (1), 73–94.

Dissertation
Rolin, K. H. (1996). Gender, Emotions, and Epistemic Values in High-Energy Physics: A Feminist Challenge for Scientific Methodology. PhD dissertation. University of Minnesota.

Film
Children of the Crocodile. (2001). Dir. M. Emerman. New York: Women Make Movies.

Internet sources
Savage, J. (2011). “Re-creating Mankind: The Philosophy and Actualization of the ‘New Soviet Man’.” In: The Eagle Feather. Available at: <https://eaglefeather.honors.unt.edu/2011/article/36#> (accessed September 2020).

In-text citations
In-text citations contain a fragment of the full citation. The author’s last name and the year of publication should be enclosed in parentheses, e.g. (Collins 2005). The specific page is inserted when directly quoting a source, e.g. (Collins 2005, 88); for dual authorship (Auerbach and Castronovo 2013, 2); for three and more authors (Smith et al. 2001); for two works by the same author in a single year (Lugones 1990a, 1990b); for two or more works by different authors (Rai 2000; Stimpson 2000; Brennan 2004), e.g.:

The role of political caricatures, defined as “a key form of visual propaganda”, has remained understudied within Soviet visual culture (Norris 2020, 520).

Tables and figures
Tables and figures must also be prepared on separate pages and submitted in original size and highresolution (at least 300 dpi) in TIFF or JPG format. Their approximate position should be indicated in the paper. They should be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals and titled.  The primary source of the table/figure and permission for its usage must be included in the paper. The author is requested to supply professionally drawn copies suitable for printing.

Notes
Titles of books, plays, journals, newspapers, films, plays (initial capital for each major word should be used), and quotations within the text are written in double curly quotation marks. Single curly quotation marks are used only for quotes within quotes.
An ellipsis within the continuous text should be indicated by […].
Dates and page numbers are separated by en dashes:1949–1985; 296–301.
Dates are written the following: January 2, 2017.
All numbers greater than ten (10) should be expressed in numerical form rather than in words. Numbers that begin a sentence are spelt out (Forty per cent).
Per cent is written as %, but it is spelt out at the beginning of a sentence.
Numbers of centuries are spelt out (twentieth century).
Italics in the article text is used only for culture-specific non-English words.
All non-English words in the body of the text or book titles and article titles should be accompanied by a translation in square brackets.
English spelling is recommended for foreign geographical names.
Footnotes are not encouraged; Notes (e.g. [1] [2]) are acceptable.

Proofs and Notification of Fundamental Errors
The typical review process takes about 60 days. If the paper is accepted for publishing “with corrections”, the author will receive reviews with recommendations. After resubmitting the article, a set of proofs for correcting errors will be sent to the author. No changes may be made in the text after final proofreading.
If a significant error or inaccuracy after the work has been published is discovered, the author is obliged to correct it, including providing evidence to the editor where requested.

For Reviewers

General Standards
Peer review is an essential component of formal scholarly communication and lies at the heart of the scientific method. Peer review assists the editors in making editorial decisions. Through the editorial communications with the author, it may also assist the author in improving the paper. Reviewers are required to observe good reviewing etiquette. Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and decline participation in the review process.

Confidentiality
Any manuscript received for review is treated as a confidential document. Reviewers must not share the review or information within the paper with anyone or contact the prospective authors directly without permission from the editor. Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript may not be used in a reviewer’s research. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Likewise, reviewers’ confidentiality is observed – the names of reviewers are never disclosed to authors. There is no direct communication between author(s) and reviewer(s) concerning a manuscript; editors fulfil the role of mediators.

Ethical Issues and Standards of Objectivity
A reviewer should be alert to potential ethical issues in the paper and bring these to the editor’s attention, including any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which the reviewer has personal knowledge.
The “Journal of Comparative Studies” is open to authors from any country, university, research institution or scientific school. Reviewers should be aware of any personal bias they may have; reviews must be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Reviewers should express their views with clear supporting arguments and inform the editor of any potential conflict of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the possible authors, companies, or institutions connected to the paper. In cases when a reviewer suggests including citations to the reviewer’s (or their associates’) work, this must be for genuine scientific reasons and not to increase one’s citation count or enhance the visibility of their work (or that of their associates). The editor shall review all disclosures of potential conflicts of interest and suggestions for self-citation made by reviewers to determine whether bias is potential.

Guidelines for Reviewers
The “Journal of Comparative Studies” publishes theory-driven, methodologically sophisticated and empirical research papers in English that have undergone a double-blind peer-review process. Reviewers are requested to consider the following criteria:

  • Does the paper fit the stated scope of the journal?
  • Is the paper an original comparative study (not a compilation of formerly known publications)?
  • Does the paper contain sufficient new findings?
  • Does the paper’s title match its content?
  • Are the keywords and the abstract sufficiently informative?
  • Is the aim in the abstract and the introduction specified?
  • Does the content of the paper justify its length?
  • Is the research rigorous as to methodology and conceptualisation?
  • Is the paper well-organised?
  • Does the paper have conclusions that logically stem from the text?
  • Is the bibliography sufficient and up-to-date?
  • Is the paper written in good academic English?
  • Is the paper formatted according to the requirements in the template?

The paper not exceeding 10,000 words should be an original study in English that is “spell checked” and “grammar checked”. American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these. It should be submitted in the paper template designed for the “Journal of Comparative Studies”.

Review Process
The manuscript and signed author(s) guarantee form are submitted to the editor via e-mail. The editors shall seek to ensure that the peer-review process is fair, unbiased, and timely. Two editors in cooperation with the Editorial Board are responsible for deciding which articles submitted to the journal qualify for double-blind peer review. If the paper fails to meet the basic requirements, it is rejected without being reviewed further. After the initial editorial review, the research article is reviewed by two external anonymous reviewers. If necessary, the editors may seek an opinion from the third referee. The editors shall select reviewers who have suitable expertise in the relevant field and follow the best practices in avoiding the selection of fraudulent peer reviewers.
To evaluate the papers submitted to the “Journal of Comparative Studies”, complete the REVIEW FORM following the general guidelines and return the editors via e-mail (ilze.kacane@du.lv or kpc@du.lv)  within one (1) month.

The reviewers may accept the articles for publication without any corrections, with minor or major revisions, or reject them as failing to meet the requirements for a scientific paper or because it is outside the journal’s scope. If the reviews differ widely, an additional referee provides an independent opinion before making any further decision. If significant corrections are required, the revised article is forwarded by the editor to the reviewers repeatedly. In minor revisions, the editors check the re-submitted article and decide if it follows the reviewers’ recommendations and journal requirements. The content of the journal’s latest issue is annually presented at the Daugavpils University Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences Scientific Council meeting by the editor-in-chief.  Constructive recommendations for improving the overall quality be suggested, or a recommendation for a publication is issued. Daugavpils University Science Council makes the final decision to publish the journal issue based on the Scientific Council of the Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences recommendation.

Editorial Policies

OPEN ACCESS POLICY
“Journal of Comparative Studies” adheres to the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.
It operates a form of Open Access, which means that the content (both electronic and print) is available without charge to the user or his/her institution.

LICENSING AND COPYRIGHT TERMS
Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.

ETHICAL REQUIREMENTS
To reach the highest standards in publication ethics Guidance from the Commission on Publication Ethics (COPE) are followed.
The “Journal of Comparative Studies” requires high standards of publication ethics. Publishing Ethics are guidelines for editors, reviewers, authors and the publisher prevent publication malpractice. In cases of unethical behaviour – alleged or proven misconduct, fraudulent publication or plagiarism –, the publisher in cooperation with editors will take action to seek clarity on the situation and to amend the article. 

PROMOTION
“Journal of Comparative Studies” is indexed in EBSCOhost, European Reference Index for the Humanities and Social Sciences (ERIH PLUS), Index Copernicus International Journals Master List, Central and Eastern European Online Library (CEEOL).  Published issues and full papers are found on the journal webpage under the title List of Issues. Authors are encouraged to help promote the published research, update the researcher’s profiles in ORCID and academic networks (ResearchGate, Academia.edu, Google Scholar) as well as share the published paper, its data and the link to the journal webpage via social media (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn).

ARCHIVING
Hard and digital copies of “Journal of Comparative Studies” are deposited in the National Library of Latvia, Daugavpils University library and other libraries in the country. Authors retain the right to self-archive the article.

History

“Journal of Comparative Studies” was first published in 2003 as “Komparatīvistikas almanahs” [Almanac of Comparative Studies] of the Institute of Comparative Studies (founded in 2003) of Daugavpils University (Latvia) with ISBN for each separate issue that mainly published collected articles in Latvian and Russian. In 2013, striving for internationalization, it began its transition to an internationally recognized journal and existed as a hybrid form till 2016 with the ISBN number for each separate issue and newly assigned ISSN 2255-9388, as well as with the titles in both languages (Latvian and English). During that time (2013–2016), it became a double-blind peer-reviewed journal that published articles in three languages (Latvian, Russian, English) with titles and abstracts in the English language. In 2017, a new stage in the establishing of the internationally recognized journal focusing on quality rather than quantity began that was also aimed at avoiding fragmentation: all high-quality and peer-reviewed articles and abstracts were published annually only in the English language and in addition to the ISSN 2255-9388 (print), ISSN 2592-8279 (online) was attributed, thus the journal became available electronically on the webpage. Other measures to improve the quality of the journal were taken: establishment of international highly recognized Editorial Board, an international team of two editors, improvement of the webpage, and detailed peer-review process.

Support and contact
Editor-in-chief Ilze Kačāne
Vienibas 13-321, Daugavpils University LV-5401, LATVIA,
email: ilze.kacane@du.lv
ORCID ID